Mind is an evolutionary compromise in ordering chaos

21 октября, 2021 от Kinok Выкл

Paul Valerie

Antoine de Saint-Exupery

Arkady and Boris Strugatsky

B 2019 in science there was an event that I

As not to choke in detail, sink noise, selectively remembering only the most important thing.

Experimental discovery made by a group of researchers from the Medical Institute of Howard Hughes and University College of London (

Telling about this study, I suggested that

Today, after almost two years, I am ready to talk about two such super breakthrough discoveries that complement and developing results of the study of the Karsen Stringer group and Kenneth Harris.

Both of these discovers I call super-breakthrough without any stretch. For they:

But before proceeding to the story about these two discoveries, let’s fix a kind of «Rubikon», to which the study of the Karsen Stringer group and Kenneth Harris approached, but to go who had to have already had new research.

This «Rubicon» was discovery


To understand how the brain processes the information by discarding its large part in favor of simpler neural descriptions, the Karsen Stringer group and Kenneth Harris used the new technique of experimental recording of the process of simultaneous operation of 10 thousand neurons. With its help, mice showed thousands of images, observing the reactions in the visual crust and discovering patterns corresponding to a higher-dimensional (more detailed) pattern of neural activity.

During the experiment, it was possible to establish a similarity of some

The authors have established the presence of some

The opening of these critical moments has set a new question —

The answer to this question found by the Karsen Stringer group and Kenneth Harris turned out to be such — it is necessary to find a critical threshold of dimension (detail), after which it will appear

H

Fractals are called self-like geometric shapes, each fragment of which is repeated with a decrease in scale, i.e. Such a figure has a property of large-scale invariance. This property fundamentally distinguishes fractals from graphs of smooth functions. In the latter, with a decrease in scale, the fragment strives for a stretch of a straight or plane — i.e. to objects with integer dimension. Fractals also has the form of broken or broken objects of objects, the dimension of which (defined by special skaling procedures) is fractional.

A visual illustration of fractal is a rugged coastline. If you go along the very edge of the shore, opening the picture the picture is changing all the time, because All this edge consists of solid teeth.

Photographing the coastline, let’s say, every 10 steps, you can fix thousands and thousands of teeth on these photos that do not add information about the shape of the coastline. Due to fractal-like coastline

Get rid of fractal, not allowing him to «blow up» the brain to us the degree of its detail, you can, for example, by photography of the coast from space. Then it will turn out a compromise picture of the picture, more information on millions of times less than thousands of photos taken on each 10th (or on 3 or each) of the coastal circumference. The main thing is that «the meaning» (understanding of the outline of the coast) does not lose.

Returning to the opening of the Karsen Stringer group and Kenneth Harris, you can now reformulate it: the presentation of sensory information in the brain should be so detailed and voluminous as possible without disturbing his smoothness.

This «law» defines the mechanism of a «fractal balancing act», which allows the brain to find a compromise between the amount of data and the benefit of them is compromised. However, having come to this conclusion, the authors thus set a new question.

“Our Fractal Brains” — by Julius Horsthuis, CGI Animated Shorts

As poetically describes these two concepts O.V. Chumak in the monograph «

And this is not just a beautiful metaphor. So it is in reality.

Fractal

If two triangle angle is 45 degrees, then the obtained fractal is called the classic Pythagore tree.

You can also build a generalized Pythagore tree when using other corners. Such a tree is often called the Pythagora tree-added wind, and it is built as:

Entropy

Concept

But Kaba is neither entropy at the same time is both a measure of chaos, and a measure of order (structural ordering) of systems. For order and chaos are not just opposite, but also complementary concepts. This, as writes O.V. Chumak, —

As a measure of chaos or order, entropy is inherent in any systems of completely different nature. Examples include Clausius entropy in thermodynamics, Boltzmann entropy in statistical physics, Entropy of Shannon in the theory of information, Entropy Kolmogorov in the theory of dynamic systems, entropy von Nimanan in quantum mechanics.

In the context of finding out the mechanisms of the brain, we are interested in the same information meaning of entropy. This sense was first determined by L. Boltzmann —

Such an informational meaning of entropy establishes an inextricable link between information and structure.

All this looks logical and folded. But how can this be interpreted within the framework of the mechanisms of work of the brain?

It is possible to understand this on the basis of a symptom of a hundred years ago: about

This ability of predictions allowing the brain to find sense among noisy and ambiguous sensory information is the most important function of the brain that helps us comprehend the world around us and navigate it.

The idea of the brain, as a prediction machine, belongs to German physics and the doctor of the 19th century

An example of this can be a well-known optical illusion, which can be perceived either in the form of a silhouette of two people looking at each other or in the form of a vase contours.

The most visual, simple and understandable explanation of the theory of the predicting brain can be obtained by listening to the next 15 minutes. Great speech

Over the past decades, the theory of the predictive brain has become the dominant theory of cognitive neurobiology. The reason for this is a colossal explanatory force of this theory. Therefore, it is increasingly called

According to the modern interpretation of this theory, all brain activity is perception, thinking, feelings, actions, can be explained by a single mechanism:

It so happened due to the fact that the brain does not have direct access to the outside world. And there is only information about signals entering the senses and encoded in the form of a certain Morzyanka, which the brain must learn to interpret. For this, the brain needs to be able to simulate hidden (not known to him)

Only predicting how the actions of the body will change the information incoming to the touch input, the brain can check how true its model is. It follows that perception and action are two inseparable processes carried out by the brain due to the need to minimize sensory prediction errors.

Because of this, we will not even experience feelings of ticking, if we try to tick themselves. After all, in this case there are no surprises for the brain. According to the position of your hand near the heel, as well as on the tempo, the rhythm and the intensity of the movement of the flock in this hand, the brain knows exactly: where, when and what tickle to expect. And since there is no surprise, then there is no feeling of ticking — the reaction to the irritant in the form of a gusty laughter and reflex movements with the increase in pulse and breathing. Why all this, if the model works so correctly. And because the brain completely refuses to process these nerve impulses and give commands to stupid giggling and ridiculous twitching.

On the example of tickling it can be seen that the brain is perfectly disassembled, where his own «I» is valid, and where there is no (though

For example.

In 2010

Entropy in PSE is

PSE claims that any non-equilibrium stationary system is self-organizing by minimizing

As a result, theoretically,

Over the past 11 years, theoretical frameworks and mathematical descriptions have been developed on the basis of PSE:

Well, recently, on the basis of PSE, two most interesting theories describing

Rebus allows you to understand:

UMF describes the dynamics of changes in brain modes during the three types of meditation, resulting in a practitioner:

The central place in explaining the principles of work UMF and Rebus is occupied by the concepts of fractality and entropy, considered by us in this post. Now we have to consider:

✔️ How does these concepts manifest themselves in the mechanisms of brain work on the examples of «abnormal» processes occurring in the modified states of mind.

✔️ as the specifics of the brain processes during meditative «dives» and psychedelic «flops» explains the mechanism of a «fractal balancing act», which allows the brain to find a compromise between the amount of data and the benefit captured from them for its forecasts.

Read about it in a week in the 2nd part of the post:


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