To media technologies insects, viruses and algorithms

22 октября, 2021 от Kinok Выкл


It «

And all this was told in

This new type of culture is surprisingly combines the mechanisms of traditional culture of people.

Let’s start with the fact that we consider how the change of media technologies attracted the transformation of culture.

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Medatenologies existed in cognitive communities and to a large Homo transition, i.e. Before the appearance of people of a self-split speech and symbolic language. Torchestic media technologies based on the mimetic culture of episodic memory and body language are discussed in detail in two monographs of Merlin Donald: «

However, here we are interested in media technologies that appeared after a large Homo transition. For only with the appearance of a self-consistent speech and symbolic language, the possibility of radical improvement of the processes of distributed knowledge, withdrawing it on a fundamentally different level. This new level allowed not only to unite individual intelligence of individuals into the collective mind of cognitive communities.

At the beginning of a large HOMO transition, media technologies used by cognitive communities were very primitive.

Thousands of years passed, but media technologies practically did not change. Only sometimes changed materials for the manufacture of artifacts. Distributed cognitive networks remained still by the networks of communications in physical reality and, usually, not exceeded by the number of participants

With the advent of writing

The next jump in the scaling of distributed cognition occurred in the 15th century as a result

However, the new and even more radical revolution was no longer outside the corner.

Since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of information technologies, traditional culture began to transform immediately on all three of its components:

Consider the transformation of each of the components of the traditional culture.

Each of the three above-mentioned transformations has provided such a significant impact on the culture that he gave rise to, according to its researchers, three interrelated

In modern theory of media, it is customary to allocate the global transition from

Digital culture

«This digital culture has

Network culture

«If the digital culture was

Third Type of Returgical Culture —

Since all three types of riquid cultures were interrelated and provided a synergistic effect on each other, a number of researchers were made attempt to merge into



Ted Striphas

«The use of computing processes for sorting, classification and hierarchying of people, places, objects and ideas, as well as habits of thinking, behavior and expressions arising in connection with these processes»

Kevin Slavin

Slavin’s speech has finished such a question:

«If we have already been dependent on complex algorithms to manage our everyday decisions — when will we start losing control?»

Tarlton Gillespi in [

«Algorithms, participate in the development of culture, being mechanisms that determine the circulation and evaluation of information. Thus, they become part of the processes by which the institutions of knowledge and culture of mankind form both …

Integrating all three areas of transformation of traditional culture, taking into account the role of algorithms, algorithmic culture is characterized

It is important to distinguish the above key features of the mediation of the algorithmic culture on the characteristics of the algorithmic culture itself.

Here refers to algorithms that determine the search mechanisms, streamlining, hierarchying, assessment and making the meaning of information in processes, through which the institutions of knowledge form and develop culture.

Each of the three above-mentioned distinctive features of the mediators of the algorithmic culture has

(A) The consequence of the 1st distinctive feature (colossal volume) is the extremely limited ability to control and control the media owner by people. As a result,

B) consequence of the 2nd distinctive feature

Consequence of the 3rd features (the algorithmic mechanism of functioning meaning

It is important to understand that the above-described differences and their consequences are sorted not only from the intangibleness and digital format of the mediation of algorithmic culture. For example, television also has a digital format and can be broadcast in an intangible environment — ether. But the TV does not have the structure of the woodless network, and not everything in the functioning mechanisms is determined by algorithms.

However, this does not yet exhaust all aspects of the colossal transformation of culture in the 21st century.

As noted in the 1st part, the concept of «culture», in the context of the topic under discussion, should be interpreted in an evolutionary and anthropological sense. Without the linking of key aspects of the concept of «culture», with a cognitive evolution of a person, a meaningful analysis of the hypotheses under consideration about the new large evolutionary transition of Homo Sapiens is impossible. After all, we are trying to figure out how the transformation of culture in the 21st century affects the change in the «engine» of the cognitive evolution of people. Such a link, unfortunately, is absent in all the analyzes of algorithmic culture known to us, as well as in numerous existing work devoted to the digital, network and hybrid culture of new media.

This was the basis for the consideration of a number of important expansion of algorithmic culture, fundamental in the context of the cognitive evolution of man. They will be discussed in the next section.


Accounting for three mentioned aspects requires relevant expansion of algorithmic culture, which ultimately leads us to a new type of culture called us

It is quite paradoxical at the same time that accounting for three extensions converting algorithmic culture into an algocognitive:

The first expansion of the algorithmic culture is a new, not previously used in the cognitive evolution of people the mechanism of exchange of thoughts during cooperative cognitive work. This is a mechanism of digital stighergia.

According to Merlin, Donald, individual intelligence is the result of the implementation of the design potential of the brain of the individual, included in the distributed cognitive networks, where it participates in the process of distributed knowledge. And since distributed cognition occurs in the form of cooperative cognitive work, it becomes extremely important

This issue in the second half of the 20th century became the object of attention of the new interdisciplinary academic field

The basic model of the organization and the description of such relationships becomes

In fact, Ant offered a new specific concept of society and culture involving

The change of mediation during a series of cultural transformations in the root changed the situation. And already in 2012 Tarlton Gillespi in the description of how

Mentioned Gillespie

In nature, Stigmergia [

Termites are distinguished as info players that they mark the road to the found source found themselves. Or the path following which will be built a solid column, when termites are trying to throw the tillage of the tillage left by other termites a bunch. As a result, small bugs grow rapidly into huge columns.

The mechanism works extremely simple: if it caught the smell of Pheromon, go along this trace and highlight the pheromones himself so that the road is more accurate to go for you. Essentially stigrimia is

Here is a simple animation explaining the most important role of stighergia in the lives of ants (about the mechanism of action of Stigmergia, called the Recruitment, see from 3:11 — there are subtitles in Russian).

This type of stighergia of social insects, according to the classification of work [

«Stigmergia has potential importance not only for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social nature in animals (from collectively caring for the offspring of species to eousial insects. It may also be an important concept in other areas, such as artificial intelligence, social, political and economic sciences, for which its significance is intuitively obvious. «

Since the beginning of the 2000s, the concept of «Stegmergia 2.0» applies to a wide range of human activities: stock markets, economics, movement structure, supply logistics, resource allocation, urban development and much more. The phenomenon of Stigmergia is no longer associated exclusively with ants or second-like «agents» with minimal cognitive abilities or a little more intelligent (type of fish, birds or sheep). It has been proven that stighergic systems are a special case.

A little later, the development of digital technologies led to the appearance of the third type of stighergia —

In the algocognitive culture, digital stigrigria has become a key mechanism for the cooperative cognitive work of people during distributed knowledge. In order for neither the user, he leaves digital traces of his actions, preferences or its unconscious selection on the network.

For example, the work of any search engine is pure stigrigia: improving the search helps the processing of human appeals to various sites. Content rating — also Stigmergia: marking your favorite movies, users help to make a choice to other users. In the same way, new knowledge can be created. For example, several years ago, gamers have developed a three-dimensional protein model that can resist the AIDS virus. With this task, five years could not cope the largest supercomputers in the five most advanced centers of molecular biology. The gamers helped a special program that used their unintentional action during the game to build a model.

Stigmergia has a tremendous effect on the thoughts and actions of billions of people — holders of computers, smartphones, smart TV and the masses of various internet devices of things.

She must be impossible to overcome various manifestations

Working with digital traces underlying Stigmergia has acquired the highest value in algocognitive culture.

Previously noted

And although the meaning and consequences of the emergence of a new mechanism for organizing mass cognitive activity of people are still to be evaluated, you can already state the following.

Most likely,

Survected by nature for tens of millions of years Other forms of social organization insects, solving the task of building collective intelligence (type

On the inhuman aspects of the transformation of culture are written so far quite a little. The more valuable may be the analysis of this topic, made by the Finnish theorist of new media and professor of technological culture of Jussi Parikka in the book

As Parika writes:

«They are everywhere and can be perceived as a completely alien mind; Higher, with their many eyes, abilities to movements and sensations, so different from ours. It is not surprising that science fiction was inspired by insects. But also in other areas, such as robotics, as well as network design. Insects are more than crawling creatures; They are also a central point of reference in a significant part of the network culture, from conversations about collective minds and distributed networks to algorithms that function as a colony of ants. «

The following inhuman property of the algocognitive culture is no longer in the insect, but to viruses. We will consider the impact of information and social infection on the processes of distributed knowledge.

It seems that I have exhausted the arsenal of purely human social opportunities for the development of culture, the evolution tries to put into it well-proven the possibilities of inhuman species.

In the previous section, it was described on adaptation in the human culture of the mechanism of the social organization of the collective activities of insects (stighergia) in its improved digital-algorithmic performance. Multi-billion-year experience in using Stigmergia made it possible to create from a large number of primitive antiques, quite an advanced collective intelligence, capable of working feats, not available to lonely ants. The full feature of the practical application of Stigmergia appeared only with the appearance of allegognitive mediars in people. But it was worth it only to appear as the unique possibility of spontaneous self-organization, transforming millions of single digital traces in the useful and necessary information, was masted by humanity.

However, by building the mechanism of digital stighergia into the algocognitive culture, nature did not stop on it. The benefit of the possibilities of inhuman species to benefit from collective action, nature knows a lot. In this section, consider another improvement in traditional culture. This time, the property most characteristic for

I write about the cascades of infosocial infections for more than 10 years. Therefore, I will not go into the details here. Wishing to take care of this issue recommended:

For even deeper immersion in the topic, you can use the updated

We will continue to review the cascades of social infection in the context of the algocognitive culture and show how they affect the algocognitive culture.

Potentially, such a process has always existed within the framework of traditional culture. However, the scale and properties of networks of physical interactions make the emergence of large infocases. According to the probabilities of cascades of infection between social media and networks of physical interactions there are

The names of the differences make incomparable the scale of the infocuses of social infection in the networks of physical interactions and social media. And if in the first epidemic of social infection — a rather rare and insignificant phenomenon, then they become second

However, the factor in the infocuses epidemiological aspects of the algocognitive culture are not exhausted.

Imagine a virus, simultaneously infecting most of the population. Metaphor of this infection is

Similar invisible dynamics of infections called by the authors

Both of the described new methods of mass «social infection»

And since memes can also be in video format, information flow consumed by people included in the distributed cognitive network began to achieve a colossal volume. Just imagine the total volume of the flow fill in the mind information on the example of the watch internet broadcast of the wedding of Prince Harry and Megan Plant in 2018: about 1-3 GB multiply to a billionth audience.

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The first story about two important technological aspects, radically changing the exchange processes in algocognitive culture, once again we emphasize.

However, in addition to explosive growth in infootocations in the cognitive network of people,

Story about

In it, we will finally get to the answer to the question in the very beginning:

Thanks for watching! Put husky I.